Experiencia comparada: regulación y control de mercados digitales de plataforma en EE UU y China

Juan Diego Otero Martín
Jorge Infante González
María Ruiz Mérida
Resumen

El presente artículo muestra el estado actual del debate sobre el tratamiento regulatorio de las plataformas digitales en dos ámbitos geográficos muy relevantes: los Estados Unidos de América (EE UU) y China. El objetivo es comparar los enfoques regulatorios de estos países con el que se seguirá en Europa a través de la Digital Markets Act (DMA) y la Digital Services Act (DSA).

Article Details

Palabras clave:
servicios digitales, competencia, Estados Unidos, China, guardián de acceso, regulación de mercados, plataformas
Citas

CE, Comisión Europea. (2020a). Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on a Single Market For Digital Services (Digital Services Act) and amending Directive 2000/31/EC. COM(2020) 825 final. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/en/TXT/?qid=1608117147218&uri=COM%3A2020%3A825%3AFIN

CE, Comisión Europea. (2020b). Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on contestable and fair markets in the digital sector (Digital Markets Act). COM(2020) 842 final. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52020PC0842&from=en

CMA, Competition & Markets Authority, United Kingdom. (2021). Compendium of approaches to improving competition in digital markets. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/compendium-of-approaches-to-improving-competition-in-digital-markets

Comité Antimonopolio del Consejo de Estado de China. (2021). Directrices antimonopolio del Comité Antimonopolio del Consejo de Estado sobre la Economía de Plataforma. https://gkml.samr.gov.cn/nsjg/fldj/202102/t20210207_325967.html

Congreso EE UU. (2021a). American Choice and Innovation Online Act (H.R.3816). https://www.congress.gov/bill/117th-congress/house-bill/3816

Congreso EE UU. (2021b). Platform Competition and Opportunity Act of 2021 (H.R.3826). https://www.congress.gov/bill/117th-congress/house-bill/3826/text

Congreso EE UU. (2021c). Ending Platform Monopolies Act (H.R.3825). https://www.congress.gov/bill/117th-congress/house-bill/3825/text

DoJ, Department of Justice United States of America. (2020). Justice Department Sues Monopolist Google For Violating Antitrust Laws. Press release. https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/justice-department-sues-monopolist-google-violating-antitrust-laws

Khan, L. M. (2017). Amazon's Antitrust Paradox. The Yale Law Journal, 126(3), 710-805. https://scholarship.law.columbia.edu/faculty_scholarship/2808

OCDE, Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos. (2019). An Introduction to Online Platforms and Their Role in the Digital Transformation. https://doi.org/10.1787/53e5f593-en

OCDE, Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos. (2021). Data portability, interoperability and digital platform competition. http://oe.cd/dpic

SAMR, State Administration for Market Regulation. (2021). Consultas públicas de las Directrices para la clasificación y calificación de las plataformas de Internet y Directrices para la implementación de las responsabilidades de los sujetos en las plataformas de Internet. https://www.samr.gov.cn/hd/zjdc/202110/t20211027_336137.html

Schnitzer, M., Maximiliams, L., Crémer, J., Dinielli, D., Fletcher, A., Heidhues, P., Scott, F. M., & Seim, K. (2021). International coherence in digital platform regulation: an economic perspective on the US and EU proposals (Yale Tobin Center for Economic Policy, Digital Regulation Project, Policy Discussion Paper No. 5). https://tobin.yale.edu/digital-economy-project/policy-discussion-papers

Scott Morton, F. M., Bouvier, P., Ezrachi, A., Jullien, B., Katz, R., Kimmelman, G., Douglas Melamed, D., & Morgenstern, J. (2019). Committee for the Study of Digital Platforms: Market Structure and Antitrust Subcommittee Report. Stigler Center for the Study of the Economy and the State, University of Chicago Booth School of Business. https://www.judiciary.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/market-structure-report%20-15-may-2019.pdf

Senado EE UU. (2021a). Augmenting Compatibility and Competition by Enabling Service Switching Act of 2019 or the ACCESS Act of 2019 (S.2658). https://www.congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/senate-bill/2658

Senado EE UU. (2021b). Merger Filing Fee Modernization Act of 2021 (S.228). https://www.congress.gov/bill/117th-congress/senate-bill/228