La respuesta multilateral a la COVID-19: veloce - ostinato

Pablo Moreno
Resumen

Las Instituciones Financieras Internacionales han respondido de una manera rápida y sostenida en apoyo a los países de renta baja y media para hacer frente a la crisis sanitaria, social y económica generada por la COVID-19 e impulsando una recuperación social y medioambientalmente sostenible. El reto a futuro pasa por reforzar este apoyo en un contexto en el que, en la mayoría de los países, la pandemia ha llevado a un retroceso en los objetivos de desarrollo y a un menor espacio de política económica por el aumento de las vulnerabilidades financieras y de los niveles de deuda pública.

Article Details

Palabras clave:
IFI, vacunación, divergencia, ODS, financiación de emergencia y convencional, DEG, DSSI, Common Framework
Citas

ADB, Asian Development Bank. (2021, September 13). ADB’s COVID-19 response for developing Asia surpasses $20 billion. Asian Development Bank.

Agarwal, R. & Gopinath, G. (2021, May 19). A Proposal to End the COVID-19 Pandemic. IMF, Staff Discussion Note SDN/2021/4.

Benedek, D., Gemayel, E. R., Senhadji, A. S. & Tieman, A. F. (2021, April). A Post-Pandemic Assessment of the Sustainable Development Goals. IMF, Staff Discussion Note SDN/2021/3.

BID, Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo. (2020, 21 de diciembre). Grupo BID aprueba récord de US$21.600 millones en préstamos en 2020. [Comunicado de prensa]. https://www.iadb.org/es/noticias/grupo-bid-aprueba-record-de-us21600-millones-en-prestamos-en-2020

Casero, M., Crespo, C., Mateo, M. & Vidal, J. (2021). El papel del Fondo Monetario Internacional en América Latina durante la crisis del coronavirus. Boletín Económico de ICE, Información Comercial Española, 3133, 27-39.

EIB, European Investment Bank. (2021, June 18). EUR 56 billion EIB response to COVID-19 crisis, climate action and stronger development focus welcomed by EU finance ministers. European Investment Bank, press release.

G20. (2021, October 31). G20 Rome Leader’s Declaration.

G20-PC. (2020, November 13). Common Framework for Debt Treatments beyond the DSSI. Joint G20 Paris Club Annex I to the Statement of the Extraordinary G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors’ Meeting. [Virtual].

Garrido, I. (2021). La visión del Fondo Monetario Internacional sobre la equidad en sus 75 años de vida. Documentos Ocasionales del Banco de España n.º 2127.

Garrido, I., Serra, X. & Solera, I. (2021, 14 de septiembre). La reciente asignación general de Derechos Especiales de Giro del FMI y las opciones para su canalización hacia las economías más vulnerables. Boletín Económico del Banco de España n.º 3/2021.

Gaspar, V., Medas, P. & Perrlli, R. (2021, 15 de diciembre). La deuda mundial alcanza cifra récord de USD 226 billones. IMFBlog.

GBM, Grupo Banco Mundial. (2020, 14 de octubre). Respuesta del Banco Mundial a la COVID-19 (coronavirus). Información Básica, Grupo Banco Mundial.

GBM, Grupo Banco Mundial. (2021a, 12 de octubre). Responder a la pandemia de COVID-19 y trabajar para una reconstrucción mejor. Grupo Banco Mundial.

GBM, Grupo Banco Mundial. (2021b, 26 de julio). COVAX y el Banco Mundial acelerarán el acceso de los países en desarrollo a las vacunas. Grupo Banco Mundial.

GBM, Grupo Banco Mundial. (2021c, 24 de septiembre). COVID-19 (coronavirus): Iniciativa de Suspensión del Servicio de la Deuda. Reseña del Banco Mundial.

Georgieva, K., Ghebreyesus, T. A., Malpass, D. & Okonjo-Iweala, N. (2021, 31 de mayo). Una hoja de ruta para superar la pandemia. Carta abierta, El País.

HMDB, Heads of Multilateral Development Banks. (2020). Financing the Sustainable Development Goals. The contributions of the Multilateral Development Banks. Report of the Heads of Multilateral Development Banks.

IMF, International Monetary Fund. (2020, December 3). Colombia Draws on IMF Flexible Credit Line to Address the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Monetary Fund, press release No. 20/363.

IMF, International Monetary Fund. (2021a, May). Comprehensive Surveillance Review–Overview. International Monetary Fund, Policy Paper No. 2021/027.

IMF, International Monetary Fund. (2021b, March 25). Temporary Extensions and Modifications of Access Limits in the Fund’s Lending Facilities. International Monetary Fund, Policy Paper No. 2021/019.

IMF, International Monetary Fund. (2021c, July 22). The IMF Approves Policy Reforms and Funding Package to Better Support the Recovery of Low-Income Countries from the Pandemic. International Monetary Fund, press release No. PR21/222.

IMF, International Monetary Fund. (2021d, October 15). COVID-19 Financial Assistance and Debt Service Relief. International Monetary Fund, COVID-19 lending tracker.

IMF, International Monetary Fund. (2021e). Past IMF Disbursements and Repayments for all members from May 01, 1984 to September 30, 2021. International Monetary Fund, lending database.

IMF, International Monetary Fund. (2021f, July 12). Proposal for a General Allocation of Special Drawing Rights. International Monetary Fund, Policy Paper No. 2021/049.

IMF, International Monetary Fund. (2021g, October 8). The IMF Executive Board Extends Debt Service Relief for 24 Eligible Low-Income Countries. International Monetary Fund, press release No. 21/291.

IMF, International Monetary Fund. (2021h). IMF Fiscal Monitor October. Strengthening the Credibility of Public Finances.

IMFC, International Monetary and Financial Committee. (2021, October 14). Communiqué of the Forty-Fourth Meeting of the International Monetary and Financial Committee. IMFC.

IMF-WBG, International Monetary Fund-World Bank Group. (2020, September 28). Joint IMF-WBG Staff Note: Implementation and Extension of the Debt Service Suspension Initiative. International Monetary Fund and World Bank Group.

IMF-WBG, International Monetary Fund-World Bank Group. (2021, March). World Bank Group and International Monetary Fund Support for Debt Relief under The Common Framework and Beyond. International Monetary Fund and World Bank Group.

IMF-WHO, International Monetary Fund-World Health Organization. (2021). IMF-WHO-COVID-19-Vaccine-Supply-Tracker. International Monetary Fund and World Health Organization, joint database.

MLT, Multilateral Leaders Taskforce. (2021a). Vaccine Supply & Delivery. Multilateral Leaders Taskforce, database.

MLT, Multilateral Leaders Taskforce. (2021b, June 30). Joint Statement by the Heads of the World Bank Group, International Monetary Fund, World Health Organization, and World Trade Organization on the First Meeting of the Task Force on COVID-19 Vaccines, Therapeutics and Diagnostics for Developing Countries. Multilateral Leaders Taskforce.

MLT, Multilateral Leaders Taskforce. (2021c, September 16). Fourth Meeting of the Multilateral Leaders Task Force on Scaling COVID-19 Tools. Multilateral Leaders Taskforce.

MLT, Multilateral Leaders Taskforce. (2021d). Dose Donations to COVAX. Multilateral Leaders Taskforce, database.

Moreno, P. (2019a). El Orden Económico Internacional. En Política Económica Española. Lecciones. Thomson Reuters-Civitas.

Moreno, P. (2019b, 1 de octubre). El legado de Lagarde. Blog NewDeal.

Moreno, P. (2020, 17 de abril). La respuesta del FMI a la crisis de la COVID-19. Blog NewDeal.

Moreno, P. (2021a, 9 de junio). La vacunación como bien público global. Blog NewDeal.

Moreno, P. (2021b, 28 de septiembre). La inequidad global en la vacunación. Blog NewDeal.

NYT, New York Times. (2021, September 19). Fighting a Pandemic, While Launching Africa’s Health Revolution. Conversation with John Nkengasong, the first director of the Africa Centers for Disease Control. New York Times.

Segal, S. (2021, May 4). International Financial Institutions’ Covid-19 Approvals through Q1 2021 Surpass $260 Billion. Center for Strategic and International Studies, Blog.

WEO, World Economic Outlook. (2020a, April). World Economic Outlook: The Great Lockdown.

WEO, World Economic Outlook. (2020b, October). World Economic Outlook: A Long and Difficult Ascent.

WEO, World Economic Outlook. (2020c, October). The Great Lockdown: dissecting the economic effects. WEO, Chapter 2.

WEO, World Economic Outlook. (2021a, April). World Economic Outlook: Managing Divergent Recoveries.

WEO, World Economic Outlook. (2021b, October). World Economic Outlook: Recovery During a Pandemic. Health concerns, supply disruptions and price pressures.

WHO, World Health Organization. (2021). Access to COVID-19 tools funding commitment tracker. World Health Organization.